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Binomial Nomenclature & Diversity In living world Advance Level

Binomial Nomenclature & Diversity In living world Advance Level

Binomial Nomenclature & Its Rules For Organisms

It is a method of giving scientific names to living organisms. The rules for the scientific names are assigned by ICBN (international council for botany nomenclature) and ICZN (international council for zoology nomenclature).this scientific name of organisms consist of two names .therefore, this is called binomial nomenclature. Bi means “two” and nomenclature means “to give the name” .two names are to any living organism known as a scientific name. The scientific name consists of one “generic name “and the other is “species Name or specific epithet”.e.g the scientific name of the tomato is solanum esculentum .solanum is its genus name and esculentum is its species name. Similarly for animals, the scientific name of the cat is Felis domestica. the first name is the genus name and the second name is the species name and collectively this is one scientific name.

Binomial nomenclature is a system of giving scientific names. A Swedish scientist Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) introduce this. some scientific names have capital, L, at the end that is called authority means this scientific name is given by Carolus Linnaeus. e.g Allium cepa L. He took the scientific names from Latin words. Here a question arises, why the Latin language was common&frequent for the scientific names? So the answer to this question is that

Because Latin was a dead language and not an official language. There was no scope for any kind of modification in this language. So the CAROLUS LINNAEUS used this language for his work. After experimenting with various alternatives, Linnaeus simplified naming immensely by designating one Latin name to indicate the genus, and one as a “shorthand” name for the species

Linnaeus published the list of names of the plants in 1753 and the list names of animals’ in1758. still, many names of Linnaeus are in use.

What Are RULES OF Binomial Nomenclature?

  1. The first name of the scientific name is the generic name and its first letter is written in capital letters e.g in Allium cepa L. name of a genus is Allium and its first name is written in capital letters.
  2. The second name of the scientific name is species or the specific epithet. The first letter of the species name is written in a small letter like Allium cepa L. cepa is species and its first letter is always written in small letter .similarly other examples may be written as
  3. Scientific names are written in italics on computer. when these are written handwritten they are underlined
  • Allium Sativa (garlic)
  • Cassia fistula (amaltas)
  • Portulaca pilosa (kiss me quick)
  • Temarindus indica (imli)
  • Abrus precaritoria (ratti)
  • Pyrus communis (pear)
Plants Variety
  1. If scientific names having common generic names repeated in a paragraph many times. Then first time it is written as such. Cassia fistula and Cassia alata two different species and having the same genus. If they repeat in a paragraph then their generic name will it’s abbreviation .e.g. C.fistula and C.alata
  • WHAT IS THE NEED OF THE BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE?

  • WHY SCIENTIFIC NAMES ARE GIVEN TO THE LIVING ORGANISMS?
  • WHAT IS THE REASON OF SCIENTIFIC NAMES?
  • WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF THE SCIENTIFIC NAMES?
  • WHY COMMON NAMES HAVE NO BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE?

There are three reasons, importance and need for scientific names

  1. Common names for the same organisms.

People gave scientific names to plants and animals from the earliest times. There was no system of choosing names for the organisms. In many cases, various regions had their own names for the organisms. For example

  • PIYAZ is a common name of onion in the Urdu language. similarly, it has different names in different countries like a vassal, basal, and ganda that create confusion
  • Similarly, Amaltas also have many names in some regions like, argvad, gurmala, golden shower, and purging cassia.
  1. SINGLE NAME FOR DIFFERENT ORGANISMS

 In some cases, a single name describes the different plants and animal species.

  • Dozens of plants with bell-shaped flowers are bluebell.
  • The name BLACKBIRD is for house crow and mountain crow (raven) but both are different species. So common names create confusion
  1. COMMON NAMES HAVE NO SCIENTIFIC BASIS

THERE IS NO SCIENTIFIC BASE AND PROOF OF THE SCIENTIFIC NAME

A FISH is a vertebrate that lives in water has a vertebral column, fins for swimming, and gills for gaseous exchange.

Some invertebrates without any scientific base are fish in common names, Like silverfish, Crayfish, jellyfish, starfish. These are all insects but without any scientific proof and evidence, these are not fish which is a big confusion for biologists. Therefore to avoid this confusion and mistakes scientific name is given to the living things

Trinomial Nomenclature

Another system of nomenclature is  Trinomial Nomenclature. Trinomial means a species has three names. e.g Gorilla gorilla gorilla

In the above name, the first name is a generic name second one is species and the third name is subspecies. similarly, Homo sapiens sapiens. The first name is the generic name,2nd is species and the third one is subspecies.

when the genus and species names are the same then they are “Tautonyms”.Tautonyms are acceptable only in the case of animals but not in the case of plants.

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