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Bacteria cells a Detailed account on Bacteria

 

Bacteria cells a Detailed account on Bacteria

This post on Bacteria cells a Detailed account of Bacteria comprises of overview everything about structure, functions, discovery, economic importance, and almost all terms related to bacteria including their scientific names diagrams, and specific diseases caused by bacteria are discussed here

CHAPTER#06 BACTERIA

 

Bacteria cells a Detailed account on Bacteria

 

BACTERIA

Single cellular prokaryotic organism, which is slightly more advanced than the virus. A bacterium can act as autotrophic and heterotrophic.

BACTERIUM

Refers to single bacteria

ANTONie VAN LEEUWEN HOEK

A scientist who first discovered bacteria in 1676

COCCI

Rounded shape bacteria have no flagellum. They are sessile

MICROCOCCI

Refers to one coccus bacterium

DIPLOCOCCUS

Refers to two cocci bacteria

STREPTOCOCCUS

Refers to many cocci bacteria

BACILLUS

Rod-shaped bacteria having flagellum They are motile

MICROBACILLUS

Refers to one bacillus bacteria

STREPTOBACILLI

Refers to many bacillus bacteria

SPIRELLI

A coil-shaped bacteria that are never found in colonies. They are also sessile

VIBRIO

Comma shaped bacteria

MOTILE BACTERIA

Bacteria that can locomote with the help of flagellum

SESSILE BACTERIA

Bacteria that cannot locomote due to the absence of flagellum

AUTOTROPHIC BACTERIA

Bacteria, which can make their own food

HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA

Bacteria, which depend on others

PHOTOSYNTHETIC BACTERIA

Bacteria make their food with chlorophyll present in them. In bacteria, chlorophyll is not present in plastids, but it is free

CHEMOSYNTHETIC BACTERIA

In the absence of chlorophyll, bacteria can make food from sulfur, nitrate, ammonia, and iron; such bacteria are called chemosynthetic bacteria

PARASITIC BACTERIA

Bacteria, which get their food from living things

SAPROPHYTIC BACTERIA

Bacteria that get their food from dead organisms

SYMBIOTIC BACTERIA

Bacteria, live in living organisms and give them benefits. E.g. E coli lives in the human intestine and donates cellulose enzyme with which the cellulose is digested into glucose

BINARY FISSION

A simple type of asexual reproduction in which one bacterial cell divides to make two bacteria

ENDOSPORE FORMATION

A type of asexual reproduction that bacterium would use during unfavorable conditions. In this type, a resistant cyst is formed outside the body, which disappears when the favorable condition returns

CONJUGATION

Type of sexual reproduction in which two bacteria combine their genetic material through a conjugating tube

LEDERBERG AND TATUM

Scientists who described conjugation experimentally

TRANSDUCTION

A type of sexual reproduction in which genetic material from one bacterium goes into another bacterium through a virus (third party).

LEDERBERG AND ZINDER

They described transduction experimentally

TRANSFORMATION

A type of sexual reproduction in which DNA from one bacterium transforms the character of DNA in other bacteria

FRED GRIFFITH

He explained transformation experimentally

STREPTOMYCIN

TERRAMYCIN

NEOMYCIN

All are antibiotics extracted from bacteria

NOSTOC

NOSTOC

A common single cellular prokaryotic blue-green algae. It is also called cyanobacteria

HETEROCYST

A cellular structure in nostoc filament, which takes part in reproduction and nitrogen fixation

HORMOGONIA

Single cell of Nostoc

HORMOGONIUM

Chain of nostoc cells in filament form.

MONILIFORM

The nostoc cells have the same shape and are arranged in single lines just like beats

GELATINOUS SHEATH

A layer around nostoc filament. This sheath is formed in order to avoid the shattering of nostoc cells

INCIPIENT NUCLEUS

A nucleus without a nuclear membrane and nucleolus (prokaryotic cell)

HORMOGONIA

Asexual reproductions in nostoc in which few cells are detached from the filament and grow as new nostoc. It happens in favorable condition

AKINETES

Asexual reproduction in nostoc is used in unfavorable conditions. During this, a cell forms exospores, which protect it from climatic effects

Aerobes  - 

Organisms that require oxygen to carry out respiration, as opposed to anaerobes.

Anaerobes  - 

Organisms that do not require oxygen to carry out respiration, as opposed to aerobes. Anaerobes may be facultative anaerobes or obligate anaerobes.

Autotrophs  - 

Organisms that do not require a specified exogenous factor for normal metabolism

Binary fission  - 

Asexual reproduction is found in prokaryotes in which a cell divides into two equal daughter cells by a non-mitotic process.

Chemoautotrophs  - 

Organisms derive their energy through the synthesis of organic materials from inorganic molecules.

Eukaryotes  - 

Organisms whose cell interiors are characterized by separation into organelles and whose genetic material is enclosed by a nuclear membrane. Compare with prokaryotes.

Eukaryote flagella 

The type of flagellum found in prokaryotes. These flagella are covered by the cell membrane and move in a back and forth motion.

Facultative anaerobes  - 

Organisms that do not require oxygen to carry out respiration, but are not harmed by the presence of oxygen may have the ability to respire aerobically in its presence. Compare with obligate anaerobes.

Flagella - 

A term used to refer to two different structures in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, both used in cell movement. Flagella in both groups are long, hair-like structures, but their internal structure and evolutionary history are completely different.

Flagellin  

Protein subunits that make up prokaryotic flagella.

Gram Staining  - 

A process by which components of bacterial cell walls are bound to Gram's stain. Some bacteria lack the cell wall component that will bind Gram's stain and are classified as Gram-negative.

Heterotrophic  - 

Requiring organic materials from the environment due to an inability to produce them internally. As opposed to autotrophic.

Nucleoids  

The clear regions in which the genetic material of prokaryotes is located. Nucleoids are not membrane-bound.

Obligate anaerobes  - 

Organisms that do not require oxygen for respiration are poisoned in the presence of oxygen. Compare with facultative anaerobes.

Parasites  - 

A party in a symbiosis benefits at the expense of the other party.

Peptidoglycan  

The component of cell walls is bound by gram stain.

Photoautotroph  

An organism that gains energy by synthesizing organic compounds using light energy.

Plasmids  - 

Circular DNA molecules are found in prokaryotes.

Prokaryotes  - 

Organisms whose cells lack internal organization into organelles and whose genetic material is not contained within a membrane-bound nucleus.

Prokaryote flagella  - 

The type of flagellum found in prokaryotes. These flagella are not covered by the cell membrane and move in a spiral motion.

Pseudopeptidoglycan  - 

A substance found in the cell walls of some archaebacteria is similar to peptidoglycan.

Ribosomes  - 

Cellular machinery for protein synthesis.

Tubulin  - 

Protein that makes up the microtubules of eukaryotic flagella.

Saprophytes  - 

Heterotrophic organisms live on dead organic material.

Alternation of generations  - 

A reproductive strategy that involves a succession of haploid and diploid phases.

Ameboid motion  - 

Type of motion in which cytoplasm can flow beneath the cell membrane into new branches called pseudopods, helped by filaments of a structural protein called actin, causing the cell to move in a given direction.

Cilia  - 

Short hair-like projections are found on eukaryotic cells can help the cell move or can sweep food particles toward the mouth.

Chlorophyll  - 

The pigment found in green plants and algae allows them to undergo photosynthesis

Chloroplasts  

The organelles in which photosynthesis takes place in green plants and algae.

Endosymbiotic theory  - 

This theory states that eukaryote organelles may have evolved when large eukaryotic organisms engulfed but did not digest smaller organisms and a symbiotic relationship arose.

Isogamous - 

An organism that has only one type of gamete rather than separate male and female gametes.

Macronucleus  - 

In ciliates, the large nucleus holds many copies of the cells' genetic material. It is responsible for the growth and metabolism of the cell.

Micronucleus: 

In ciliates, the smaller nucleus is responsible for the transmission of genetic material during sexual reproduction.

Oral groove 

In ciliates, the membrane structure functions in food uptake.

Pinocytosis  - 

Method of food uptake in which a liquid or small food particle is sucked into an invagination in the cell membrane, which then folds in on itself and pinches off from the cell membrane to become a small vacuole.

Phagocytosis  - 

Method of food uptake in which a flexible portion of the cell membrane surrounds a food particle and engulfs it, bringing it into the cell in a vacuole. Phagocytosis is used to ingest other unicellular organisms or large particles.

Photosynthesis  - 

The process in which some organisms can use the energy of light to transform inorganic materials into usable organic materials.

Plankton  - 

Small free-floating organisms in fresh- and saltwater are a major marine food source.

Plasmodium  - 

The diploid vegetative phase of acellular slime molds

Pseudoplasmodium - 

The haploid slug-like phase of cellular slime molds gives rise to the fruiting body.

Pseudopods  - 

Temporary cytoplasmic protrusions of ameboid cells that function in movement and food uptake by phagocytosis.

Stigma  - 

The light-sensitive region in euglenas allows them to move toward light sources.

Thallus  - 

The leaf-like bodies of algae.

Vacuole  - 

A membrane-bound portion of the cell is usually used for holding materials such as food and waste

MCQ’s

  1. The prokaryotes were the earliest organisms and they lived and evolved all alone on earth for -----billion years

(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5

  1. Antony Van Leeuwenhoek was the first to observe micro-organisms.

(a) True (b) False

  1. Helpful bacteria are used in the production of which food?

(a) Fruit (b) Yogurt (c) Milk (d) Meat

  1. One of the important scientists who contributed to the discovery of bacteria is

(a) Albert Einstein (b) Anthony van Leeuwenhoek

(c) Richard Leakey (d) Charles Darwin

  1. Some bacteria can live without oxygen. They are called __________.

(a) Hominids (b) Hermaphrodites

(c) Omnivores (d) Anaerobes

  1. Which process do some bacteria use to reproduce?

(a) Budding (b) Regeneration (c) Fission (d) Cloning

  1. Rod-shaped bacteria are called __________.

(a) Cocci (b) colonie (c) Bacilli (d) Spirilla

  1. An organism that uses dead material as a source of food is called a(n)___.

(a) Parasite (b) Saprophyte (c) Protozoa (d) Omnivorous

  1. What pigment do cyanobacteria need to make food?

(a) Ribosome (b) Aerobes (c) Lysosomes (d) Chlorophyll

Bacteria cells a Detailed account on Bacteria

  1. In which human organ can large numbers of bacteria be found?

(a) Large intestine (b) Liver (c) Kidneys (d) All

Which statement is true about bacteria?

(a) Bacteria are living organisms that consist of one cell.

(b) Bacteria are the smallest of all living things

(c) Bacteria are the oldest and most diverse life forms.

(d) All three statements are true.

  1. There are three common shapes of bacteria. They are

(a) Rods, spheres, and spirals (b) Rods, spirals, and tubes.

(c) Spheres, hexagons, and spirals. (d) None of the above

  1. Bacteria have adapted to live in

(a) The ocean. (b) The desert and hot springs

(c) Snow or Polar Regions (d) Any climate

  1. Bacterial cell measures from 0.2 microns to 2 microns in breadth and

(a) True (b) False

  1. One of the following refers to the processes of induction of specific antigens, antibodies, or immune cells.

(a) Injection (b) Immunization (c) Intraperitoneal (d) None

Bacteria cells a Detailed account on Bacteria

  1. The immunity may be protective or curative in nature

(a) True (b) False

  1. One of the following is a way of immunization

(a) Vaccination (b) Chemotherapy (c) Physiotherapy (d) None

  1. Vaccination is prophylactic in nature in which the host is inoculated with

(a) Inactive pathogen (b) Weaker pathogen

(c) Virulent pathogen (d) Both a&b

  1. Polio vaccine is given orally, but one of the following vaccines is administered by injection

(a) Tetanus (b) TB (c) Cholera (d) All

  1. One of the following is a commercial substance produced by certain micro-organisms that inhibit or kill other micro-organisms.

(a) Antigen (b) Antibodies (c) Antibiotics (d) None

  1. The first antibiotic was discovered from penicillin fungi in -------

(a) 1940 (b) 1941 (c) 1942 (d) 1943

  1. Antibiotics that are effective against a range of infections are known as

(a) Narrow spectrum (b) Broad spectrum

(c) Both (d) None

  1. Besides medical usage, antibiotics are used in agriculture both as a growth-promoting substance in animal feed and as prophylactics

(a) True (b) False

  1. Besides antibiotic resistance, the inappropriate use of antibiotics may lead to

(a) Allergic reaction (b) Metabolic disorders

(c) Both a&b (d) None

  1. The word virus refers to

(a) Poison (b) Protein (c) Sugar (d) None

  1. The first virus was discovered by

(a) Stanely (b) Romanowisky (c) Ivanowisky (d) None

  1. The TMV was isolated in 1935 by

(a) Ivanowisky (b) Stanley (c) Both (d) None

  1. In size, the virus ranges from

(a) 17-350um (b) 10-350um (c) Both (d) None

  1. Because the virus does not possess a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus, it is called

(a) Single cellular (b) Non cellular (c) Monocellular (d) All

  1. The total number of DNA molecules in the virus is

(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4

  1. Type of life cycle in which a virus exploits the Bacteria and behaves like the master is called

(a) Lysogenic (b) Lytic (c) Lysis (d) All

  1. The head of a virus contains a protein called

(a) Rapid (b) Capsid (c) Caprin (d) Collagen

  1. The bacteria that move with flagellum are called

(a) Sessile (b) Sedentary (c) Motile (d)All

  1. Since mitochondria are missing in bacteria so it makes ATP by

(a) Plasma membrane (b) Cell membrane

(c) Both (d) None

  1. The First Bacterial cell was discovered by

(a) Leweenhoeck (b) Robert Hoek (c) Robert Brown (d) None

  1. Since bacteria are present so they are called

(a) Omnipresent (b) Omniparus (c) Both (d) None

  1. Bacteria that make their food from chlorophyll are called

(a) Heterotrophic (b) Autotrophic (c) photosynthetic (d) None

  1. One of the following is not the bacterial product

(a) Insulin (b) Penicillin (c) Both (d) None

  1. The type of reproduction in which bacteria protects itself is called

(a) Fission (b) Endospore formation

(c) Exospore (d) All

  1. The simplest method of reproduction in bacteria is called

(a) Fission (b) Budding (c) Transduction (d) All

  1. A type of sexual reproduction in which a virus transfers bacterial DNA to another Bacteria is called

(a) Transduction (b) Transformation (c) Conjugation (d) All

  1. The Streptococci pneumonia bacteria is the cause of

(a) Pneumonia (b) Cholera (c) Diptheria (d) Smallpox

  1. The simplest and smallest organism is

(a) Virus (b) Bacteria (c) Prion (d) All

  1. Bacteria that help their host is called

(a) Symbiotic (b) Parasitic (c) Both (d) None

  1. Bacteria that draw their food from dead organic matter are called

(a) Saprophytic (b) Symbiotic (c) Parasitic (d) None

  1. Cynophyceae, myxophyceae, and cyanobacteria refer to
  2. Bacteria cells a Detailed account on Bacteria

(a) Virus (b) Fungi (c) Blue-green algae (d) none

  1. The wall of cyanobacteria is

(a) Single gelatinous (b) Double gelatinous

(c) Gelatinous (d) none

  1. The majority of cyanobacteria live in

(a) Marine water (b) Freshwater (c) Brackish water (d) Land

  1. The sexual reproduction in the blue-green alga

(a) Does not occur (b) Some times (c) Regular (d) none

  1. Water blooms are found in

(a) Winter (b) Spring (c) Summer (d) Autumn

  1. One of the following is not the reproductive method in cyanobacteria

(a) Hormogonia (b) Akinetes (c) Budding (d) All

Bacteria cells a Detailed account on Bacteria

  1. The Nostoc cytoplasm at the border looks colorful due to

(a) Centroplasm (b) Cromoplasm (c) Both a & b (d) None

  1. The structure that helps in nitrogen fixation and protein formation is

(a) Hormogonium (b) Moniliform (c) Heterocyst (d) All

  1. The asexual reproduction by Nostoc in the favorable condition is

(a) Akinetes (b) Hormogonia (c) Both a&b (d) None

  1. The endospore formation in Nostoc occurs during

(a) Favorable season (b) Unfavorable season

(c) Both a&b (d) None

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