Biodiversity Levels of biodiversity and Importance

 

Biodiversity Levels of biodiversity and Importance

 This topic is about Biodiversity Levels of biodiversity and their Importance

Biodiversity

Biological diversity may be defined as " the variability of living organisms. Biodiversity includes the genetic variability ( for which different varieties of species have appeared in the course of evolution) and diversity of life forms on earth such as plants, animals, microorganisms, etc .living in a wide range of ecosystems. It also includes the diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems.

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Biodiversity Levels of biodiversity and Importance, Threats to organisms in Pakistan, Definition Ecological values and economical values

Levels of biodiversity:-

Generally, it deals with 3 hierarchical levels.
Genetic diversity:
it describes the variation in the number and types of genes within species and populations. It covers the genetic variation b/w the population of the same species and within populations. The genetic variation arises by gene and chromosome mutation in individuals and in sexually reproducing organisms and it is spread in the population by recombination of genetic materials during cell division after sexual reproduction.

Importance of Genetic biodiversity:

1- It helps in the speciation or evolution of new species.
2- It is useful in adaptation to changes in environmental conditions.
3- It is important for agricultural productivity and development.
Species Diversity:-
It describes all species on the earth. it includes the variety and abundance of living organisms within a region or all over the world. The estimated number of species is 30-50 million. The species diversity in land ecosystems decreases with increasing altitude.

Importance of species diversity:-

(i)- It reflects the entire range of evolutionary and ecological adaptations of species to the environment.
(ii)- It provides people with resources such as food, shelter, medicine, etc.
Species richness(variety):
it is defined as
" total number of species per unit area ". The species richness depends largely on climatic conditions. Species richness is greater in equatorial regions than in the Polar Regions.
Species Evenness:-
" The distribution of individuals among species in a community" .represents species evenness.

If there are 40 foxes and 100 dogs, the community is not even
Species are abundance(number): This refers to the "number" of individuals per species
If one species are represented by 96 individual, while the rest are represented by 1 species each, this shows low diversity


Endemic species:
"When a species is confined entirely to a particular area" it is endemic species.
Ecosystem diversity:
It refers to variety in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. It includes varieties of habitat biotic communities and ecological processes in the biosphere
For example:
The landscapes like grassland, desert, mountains, etc show ecosystem diversity
The ecosystem diversity is due to the diversity of niches' trophic levels and ecological processes like nutrient cycling. Food web, energy flow, the role of dominant species, and various related biotic interactions
Importance of ecosystem diversity:
It provides crucial services to humans such as:
1) water for drinking and agriculture
2) flood control
3) protection from soil erosion
4) filtering of water and air
Fictional diversity:
Functional variety is referred to the variety of biological processes, functions, and characteristics of a particular ecosystem in this case marine biodiversity. Functional diversity reflects the biological complexity of an ecosystem

Taxonomic diversity:

This diversity considers the genetic relationship between the group of species
Measuring biodiversity:
Measuring biodiversity means determining the species in a specific area
Pakistan is no institution for the calculation of new inventory species for measuring biodiversity and for monitoring the identification of species. Due to the lack of quantitative and qualitative information on biodiversity
At present and we know little about the biodiversity of the mountains of Pakistan
According to Whittaker (1972), the community diversity is measured on three scales
i)Alpha diversity:
#It describes the number of species within the small and local area
#It tells the species diversity in a given community
It depends upon species richness and evenness within a habitat unit
Ii) Beta diversity

It describes an expression of diversity between habitats (it links alpha and gamma diversity It reflects a variety of species in an area.


It also describes a range of communities due to the replacement of species that arises due to the absence of different microhabitats, niches, and environmental conditions.
Gamma Diversity:
It describes diversity in the number of species over a total land escape or geographical region
. Alpha;(a) Divesity=richness and evenness of Individuals within a habitat unit. For example in the figure below, Alpha Diversity of site A =7 species, site B=5species site C =7 Species.
. Beta (B) Diversity= expression of diversity between habitats. In the example below, the greatest Beta diversity is observed between sites A and C with 10 Species that differ between them and only 2 Species are common.
. Gamma (r) Diversity= Landscape diversity or diversity of habitats within a landscape (any ecological area which is usually different from another area) or region. In this example, the gamma diversity is 3 habitats with 12 species. Gamma diversity can be calculated by this formula;
Y =S1 + S2 _C
S1 = Total number of species in Site 1
S2 = Total number of species in Site 2
C =Total number of species that are common

Importance of Biodiversity

The biodiversity has the following values:
i)- Productive values:-
Biodiversity produces a number of products harvested from nature and sold in the commercial markets. indirectly it provides economic benefits to people that include water quality, soil protection, environmental monitoring, scientific research, recreation, etc.
ii)- Consumptive value:
it can be assigned to goods such as fuel woods, leaves, forest products, etc. which may be consumed locally and do not figure in national and international markets.
iii)- The loss of biodiversity directly influences social life possibly by influencing ecosystem functions (energy flow and biogeochemical cycles, global warming, and acid rain).
iv)- Aesthetic values:-
Aesthetic values such as the refreshing fragrance of the flowers, taste of berries, melodious songs of birds, etc. compel the human beings to preserve them because human beings derive great enjoyment from the natural environment. Similarly, botanical zoological gardens are the means of biodiversity conservation and are of aesthetic value.
v)- Ethical Values:-
Every organism has an interest right to exist regardless of whether it's valuable to human beings or not. It should be the prime responsibility and moral obligation of man to preserve and conserve other organisms which directly or indirectly favor the existence of man.
vi)- Ecological values:
Biodiversity maintains the integrity of the environment through:
1- Maintaining CO2/O2 balance
2- Regulation of biogeochemical cycles
3- Absorption and degradation of pollutants
4- Regulation of climate
5- protective services for biodiversity

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Vii) - Economic values
Biodiversity has great economic value because economic development depends upon efficient and economic management of biotic resources.
viii)- Legal vales
Since the earth is the homeland of all living organisms, all have equal rights to coexist on the surface of the earth with all benefits. Unless some legal value is attached to biodiversity, it will not be possible to protect against the rapid extinction of species

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