Biodiversity of Pakistan

 

Biodiversity of Pakistan

 A detailed article on the Biodiversity of Pakistan Chapters 03 Biodiversity and conservation Biodiversity of Pakistan
it refers to the number and variety of life found within a specified geographic region

The biological discipline deals with biodiversity
Evolutionary biology
Taxonomy
Ecology
Genetic
Population biology



Biodiversity of Pakistan, History Levels, Measurement tools of biodiversity, Hotspots areas in Pakistan legislation policy in Pakistan


History of biodiversity

biodiversity is the result of 3.5 billion years of evolution. The origin of life has not been definitively established by science however some evidence suggests that life may already have been well established only a few hundred million years after
the formation of the earth. approximately 6000 million years ago all Life was considered protozoans and single called organisms

Levels of biodiversity


Genetic diversity
Species diversity
Ecosystem diversity

1. Genetic diversity

This level of biodiversity refers to the total number of genetic characteristics in the
the genetic makeup of species.

2. Species diversity
Species diversity is the effective number of different species that are represented in a 
collection of individuals.
3. Ecosystem diversity
Ecosystem diversity is the level of biodiversity refers to the diversity of a place at the level of the ecosystem. The term differs from biodiversity which refers to variation in a species rather than ecosystems.

Biodiversity measurement tools

1. Alpha diversity
2. Beta diversity
3. Gamma diversity


Alpha diversity
Alpha diversity is within area diversity measured as the number of species occurring; within an area of a given size (Huston 1994). It, therefore, measures the richness of a potentially interactive assemblage of species.
Beta diversity
’ Beta diversity was introduced by Whittaker (1960) to designate the degree of species change along with a given habitat or physiographic gradient represented in terms of the similarity index or of a species turnover rate.
Gamma diversity
Gamma diversity is also a measure of within an area diversity however it usually refers to - overall diversity within a large region (Cornell 1985) and its comprehension is direct connections with dealing with biodiversity and landscape level.
Current status of biodiversity
Approximately 250000 to 300000 are edible plant species
Animals provide 30% of human requirements for food and agriculture
More than 20000 species are used for medicinal purposes
Out of the world’s 5490 mammals

78 are extinct in the wild
188 critically endangered
540 endangered
492 vulnerable

Biodiversity importance
  • Ecological services,
    Biological productivity
    Regulation of climate
    Degradation of wastes
    Cleaning of air and water
    Cycling of nutrients
    Control of potential pests and diseases Causing species

Challenges to biodiversity

  • Human population growth,
    Population and disease ‘
    Habitat loss and degradation
    Introduction of invasive alien species ;
    Overexploitation/Overharvesting of natural resources
    Global climate change
    Energy crisis 
    International trade of game species
    Pollution

Habitat loss in Islamic countries

  • - Bangladesh 91%.
  • - Pakistan 76%
  • - Indonesia 48%
  • - Malaysia4!l%
  • - Turkey 21% . . .

- 150 000 vascular plants reported from the Islamic world 25000 in are endemics ratio 2 to 50 %. More than 450000 km2 tum to the desert each year. Land degradation jeopardizes the livelihoods of over 1 billion people.

Recent issues on biodiversity,

  • Some75 percent of the genetic diversity of crop plants has been lost in the past century.
    Some scientists estimate that as many as three species per hour are going extinct and 20,000 extinctions occur each year
  • Roughly 1/3 of the world's coral reef system has been destroyed or highly degraded.
    About 20% of mammals and 12% of bird species are currently considered to be globally threatened
    More than 50% of the world's wetlands have been drained populations of inland water and species have declined by 50% between 1970 and 1999.

Protection of biodiversity loss


  • Research
    Legislation
    Education/awareness
    Sustainable use of habitats and fisheries Integration/coordination
Hotspots areas in Pakistan
  • Regions are facing threats to biodiversity in Pakistan.
    Himalaya biodiversity.
    Suleiman range Alpine Meadows.
    Karakorum West Tibetan Plateau Alpine Steppe.

Reasons for threats to biodiversity in Pakistan


Increase of population
It is coupled with the demand for economic growth is putting ever-increasing pressures on the country’s natural resources based. Wrong economic policies have led to the widening of inequalities forcing the poor to depend more heavily on natural resources and lack of facilities.
Soil erosion
it has seriously affected agricultural output reducing agricultural areas and grazing areas. it has also led to the siltation of dams canals and water courses which are, the lifeline of agricultural production in the country. the storage capacity of the dams has decreased and the desalting of water canals is draining an already improvised economy.
Deforestation
Although only 5.7% of the total land area of Pakistan is covered with forests. The disappearance of trees and shrubs means that the associated flora and fauna dependent on the forest are also last. Deforestation is having a particularly grave effect on Baluchistan’s juniper forests, the riverine areas of the Indus basin, and the coastal mangroves.
Overgrazing
Large numbers of livestock, increasing at a rate of 20% every seven years, ago have burdened the carrying capacity of Pakistan's range islands. Overgrazing results in the loss of topsoil and water and wind erosion, leaving the soil vulnerable to loss of nutrients and desertification. Wildlife vegetation is reduced as prey species such as lagomorphs, ungulates and rodents become fewer, and land is unable to support predator populations.
Hunting
Hunting has a long tradition in Pakistan. However, unregulated hunting has ‘ resulted in the dividing divide length of many species of game animals. Some species such as a goitred gazelle and Marco polo sheep are on the verge of extinction, the Houbara bustard continues to be haunted by large parties from the gulf despite the fact | that hunting is prohibited to the locals.

Salinity and Water-logging
Continuous surface irrigation has raised the water table in the Indus basin, as a  result of which large tracts of agricultural land, particularly in Sindh and southern Punjab, are being lost to salinity and water-logging. Natural forests, which are rich in ' biodiversity, could also be affected as a result of this water-logging, through clear feeling to make more land available.

Measures to conserve biodiversity in Pakistan

  • Conserved through people's participation
  • National conservation strategy
  • Ban on hunting and trade of endangered species
  • Areas designated to conserve endangered species
  • Legislation and Policy
    There are many laws covering areas such as.
    forestry
    wildlife protection
    grazing rights
    soil conservation
    discharge of effluents.

Government departments and research organizations
Wildlife management is the responsibility of the provincial wildlife Sindh Baluchistan, Punjab, KPK, and Azad Jammu and Kashmir have separate wildlife departments while in the Gilgit Baltistan, the forestry department administers and” impinges wildlife. ‘

Non-governmental organizations
A large number of non-government organizations are also involved with biodiversity conservation.

World Wide Fund for Nature Pakistan ( WWFP)
Agha khan Rural Support Program (AKRSP)

Muslim Hands Pakistan

The country's 14 national parks, 101 wildlife sanctuaries, and 96 game reserves are run by the game departments of different provinces, each with its own jurisdiction. The area covered by these three categories totals 11.4% of the total area of the country.

Conclusion
Biodiversity is our life. if biodiversity gets lost at this rate then in near future, the survival of human beings will be threatened. So, it is out moral our moral duty to conserve biodiversity as well as the environment.

 

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