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Chapter 5 Ecosystem Services conservation and Biodiversity

Chapter 5 Ecosystem Services conservation and Biodiversity

 Ecosystem Services

The services of people obtained from the environment or ecosystem services are the: benefits  provided to humans through the transformations of resources (an environment including land, water, vegetation, and atmosphere) into the flow of essential goods and services

e.g. clean air, water, and food They can be viewed as

Provisioning services:

such as food, raw materials, medicinal resources, water, and ecosystem goods.

 Regulating services: such as Mood, biological control, pollination, erosion control,' water treatment, regulating the quality of air, climate end soil, and disease control.

 Cultural services:

such as spiritual, aesthetic, recreational, and cultural benefits.

Supporting services:

maintenance of genetic diversity, habitat, and the conditions for life on earth.

 Economic values of an ecosystem:

 1. Direct use value:

Direct values are those drawn from provisioning services as marketed goods or services whose market price indicates the value we put on their direct use.

Example:

This applies to commodities hike food, timber, and water but also to entrance fees as protected areas for education purposes or salmon fishing for recreation in the countryside.

 2. Indirect use value:

Underlying their production are regulating services to control water and air quality and our use of them feels indirect. Yet they have the value that is reflected by and can be estimated from how we behave as consumers.

Example:

Although we might not pay for the maintenance of a healthy lake, we may be willing to pay a high price for a house near such a lake or to drive longer to visit the especially pleasant landscape around this lake.

 Option values

Other more indirect values can still be traced to the benefit of preserving the possibility of future direct or indirect use.

 Example:

Investment in biodiversity conservation. often based on the optional values of Preserving ecosystem species and genes for potential-future use.

 Existence value:

People may value ecosystem services without actually driving any use-value from them some of us may value the preservation of sume environmental amenity for its existence value.

 Bequest value:

For knowing that an ecosystem will be conserved for future generations.

 1-Direct use value:

Direct use values are further divided into

  • i) Consumptive use value(for goods that are used locally
  • ii) Productive use value(for products that are sold in markets)

Consumptive use value:

Goods such as fuel wood and game that are consumed locally and don't appear -in national and international marketplace are assigned consumptive use-value.

 People living close to the land often derive a considerable proportion of the goods They require for their livelihood from the surrounding environment.

 Studies of traditional societies in the developing world show how extensively these people use their natural environment to supply themselves with firewood. vegetable fruits, meat, medicine, rope and string, and building materials.

 Source of Crucial requirement (protein) of rural people

 One of the most crucial requirements of rural people is protein which they obtain by hunting wild animals for meat.

 The wild meat includes not only birds, mammals, and fishes. but insects. snails caterpillars etc.

 In certain areas of Africa, insects may constitute the majority of the dietary protein supply and critical vitamins.

 In areas along the coast, rivers, and lakes, wild fish represent an important source of proteins

 Substitute coast approach:

Consumption use-value can be assigned to a product by considering how much people would have to pay if they had to buy an equivalent product when their local source was no longer available.

This consumptive value can also be assigned to fuel wood used for heating and cooking which is gathered from forest and shrub land.

Around 2.6 billion people rely on fuel wood as the primary energy source for heating is cooking. This accounts for over half of all global wood use.

In the past. people develop ways of extracting resources from the natural environment that prevented the overuse of renewable resources.

 Example:

Traditional Sherpa villagers in Nepal have the custom of Shingo Nava in whet men were elected to be forest guards. These men control how much fuel would collect am what could be cut and hence protect the common resources. People violating the village rule Were made to pay fines which were used to fund village activities.

Most of these traditional conservation systems have broken down as cash economies and national governments have developed. People now frequently sell natural resources in town markets for money. As social controls break down at the village level. the villagers as well. May begin to extract local resources in a destructive and non-sustainable manner.

Productive Use Value

 Products that are harvested from the wild and sold in both national and international markets are assigned productive use-value.

 Significance:

 The productive use value of natural resources is significant even in industrial nations.

 The range of products obtained from the natural environment and sold in the marketplace is enormous, fuel wood, construction timber, fish and shellfish, medicinal plants, wild fruits and vegetables, wild meat and skins, fibers, ratton (avine used to make furniture and other household articles), honey, beeswax, natural dyes, seaweed animal fodder, natural perfumes, and plant gums and resins.

 Additionally, there are large international industries associated with collecting tropical fish for the aquarium trade.

 Tropical cacti, orchids, and other plants for the horticultural industry.

 Birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles for zoos and private collections.

 In many cases, only a few individuals are needed to establish entirely new populations, to be used for display purposes, to be used in the development of new medicines and industrial products, and to be used as biological control agents. This occasional collection can be considered productive use, value, or perhaps the option value.

 Products obtained from the wild:

  • The products obtained in large quantities from the wild are:
  • Forest products
  • The natural pharmacy

 Forest Products:

Wood is one of the most significant products obtained from the natural environment, with an export value of around $ 135 billion per year.

 Wood products:

From the forests of tropical countries, timber, plywood, and wood pulp are being exported at a rapid rate to earn foreign currency to provide capital for Industrialization, pay foreign debt, and provide employment.

 Non-wood products:

Forests, including games, fruits, gums and resins, ratton, and medicinal plants, also have a large productive use-value. These non-timber products are sometimes erroneously called minor forest products.

 Many studies show that the natural ecosystems provide resources to rural people in goods and services that don’t appear in official government figures.

 When the ecosystem value the forest as a source of drinking water, flood control! and soil protection is combined with the value of non-timber products, maintaining and utilizing natural communities may still prove to be more productive than intensive logging, converting the forest into commercial plantations, or establishing cattle ranching

The Natural Pharmacy:

Effective drugs are needed to keep people healthy.

They represent an enormous industry, with worldwide sales of around $ 300 billion per year.

The natural world is an important source of medicines currently in use and possible future medicines.

One species with great medicinal use is the rose periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus). Two potent drugs derive from this plant are effective in treating Hodgkin’s disease, leukemia, and other blood cancers.

Treatment using these drugs has increased the survival rate of childhood leukemia from 10% to 90%.

Similarly, the use of coca by natives of Andean highlands eventually led to the development of synthetic derivatives such as Novocaine and Xylocaine, commonly used as local anesthetics in dentistry and surgery.

Many other important medicines were first identified in animals.

Poisonous animals such as rattles snakes, bees, and cone snails have been especially rich sources of chemicals with valuable medical and biological applications.

More recently, the fungus-derived drug cyclosporine has proved to be a crucial element in the success of heart and kidney transplants.

Even seemingly unimportant species often possess tremendous value. e Horseshoe crabs.

for example, are usually noticed as clumsy creatures that seemed to move with difficulty in shallow seawater,.

In the United States, people also use them as cheap sea bait.

In recent years, however, we have realized that horseshoe, crab eggs, and juveniles are greatly important as food sources to shore birds and coastal fish, which have a major role in tourism-related to bird watching and sport fishing.

 Importance of the role of horseshoe crabs:

 Without horseshoe crabs, the bird population and sports fish would decline in abundance.

 Additionally, horseshoe crab's blood is now collected to make Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL). Which is used to detect bacterial contamination in medicines administrated by injection.

This chemical can’ be synthesized and there is no other source for it besides horseshoe crabs.

 1. Indirect use value

Some components of biological diversity provide economic benefits without being harvested and destroyed during use. These components are said to have indirect use  Value.

They are crucial to the continued availability of the natural products on which economies depend and societies function. The Natural Pharmacy:

Effective drugs are needed to keep people healthy.

They represent an enormous industry, with worldwide sales of around $ 300 billion per year.

The natural world is an important source of medicines currently in use and possible future medicines.

One species with great medicinal use is the rose periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus). Two potent drugs derive from this plant are effective in treating Hodgkin’s disease, leukemia, and other blood cancers.

Treatment using these drugs has increased the survival rate of childhood leukemia from 10% to 90%.

Similarly, the use of coca by natives of Andean highlands eventually led to the development of synthetic derivatives such as Novocaine and Xylocaine, commonly used as local anesthetics in dentistry and surgery.

Many other important medicines were first identified in animals.

Poisonous animals such as rattles snakes, bees, and cone snails have been especially rich sources of chemicals with valuable medical and biological applications.

More recently, the fungus-derived drug cyclosporine has proved to be a crucial element in the success of heart and kidney transplants.

Even seemingly unimportant species often possess tremendous value. e Horseshoe crabs.

for example, are usually noticed as clumsy creatures that seemed to move with difficulty in shallow seawater,.

In the United States, people also use them as cheap sea bait.

In recent years, however, we have realized that horseshoe, crab eggs, and juveniles are greatly important as food sources to shore birds and coastal fish, which have a major role in tourism-related to bird watching and sport fishing.

 Importance of the role of horseshoe crabs:

 Without horseshoe crabs, the bird population and sports fish would decline in abundance.

 Additionally, the horseshoe club's blood is now collected to make Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL)... Which is used to detect bacterial contamination in medicines administrated by injection.

 This chemical can’ be synthesized and there is no other source for it besides horseshoe crabs.

 1. Indirect use value

Some components of biological diversity provide economic benefits without being harvested and destroyed during use. These components are said to have indirect use  Value.

They are crucial to the continued availability of the natural products on which economies depend and societies function.

Mountain forests, for example, prevent soil erosion and flooding that could damage

human settlements and farmlands in nearby lowland areas.

 Nonconsumptive Use value:

 The great variety of environmental services that biological communities can be classified as having a particular type of indirect use value(because these services are not consumed). These nonconsumptive use value of ecosystem services is enormous and often exceeds the value of the natural products harvested from the same place. Some of the general benefits derived from conserving biological diversity.

 Ecosystem productivity and carbon sequestration:

 The photosynthetic capacity of plants and algae allows the energy of the sun to be captured in living tissue.

 The energy stored in plants is sometimes harvested by humans for use as food, fuel wood and hay, and other fodder for animals.

 Chapter 5 Biodiversity Services conservation and Biodiversity

This plant material is also the starting point for innumerable food chains from which Many animal products are harvested by people.

 The destruction of vegetation in an area through overgrazing by domestic animals, overharvesting of timber, or frequent fires will destroy the system’s ability to make use of solar energy.

 Eventually, it leads to the loss of production of plant biomass and deterioration of the

 animal community (including humans) that lives at that rate.

 Moreover, scientists are actively investigating how the loss of species from biological communities affects ecosystem processes such as the total growth of plants, the ability of plants to absorb atmospheric carbon dioxide, and the ability to adapt to global climate change.

BS Honors Courses Notes

Course Code:Bot:404
Course Title:Biodiversity& Conservation

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