Passive and active transport of nutrients

 Passive and active transport of nutrients

Name: Javeria Hassan                             

Roll No: Bot-08

Department: BS Botany

Subject: Botany

Topic Name:

Passive and active transport of nutrients

Submitted by: Javeria Hassan

Submitted to:  Muhammad Zahid 


“Flow of nutrients/substances across a membrane from a place of lower concentration to a place of higher concentration against gradient’s concentration, often assisted by enzymes and energy required.”


Transportation of potassium into the cell and sodium out of the cell via Sodium-Potassium Pump.

Types of active transport:

Glucose move through active transport. Active transport used ATP(Adenosine Triphosphate) to pump the molecules through a gradient’s concentration. Complicated sugar, ions, big cells, proteins, and other particles are transported in this process. Two main types of active transport are discussed here:

1. Primary Active Transport

2. Secondary Active Transport

Endocytosis and exocytosis are examples of active transport. Which are utilized by all the cells for transporting of substances,are not passively permeate by the membrane.

·       Active Transport having the process of endocytosis for transportation of the substances into the cell via action of engulfing it with its membrane.

·       Exocytosis produce a counter function there by forcing the substances out of the cell.Homiostasis process confirm that the no. of molecules which are enter the cell through endocytosis are equal to the no. of molecules which are exit through the exocytosis .Both process assures that the wastes and the nutrients are balanced for smooth functioning of cell.

Nutrients used in active transport:

Active transport moved the essential substances for cellular function through the membrane into the cell.Essential substances are including Carbohydrates, Calcium ions,Vitamins and Amino acids.

Why active transport required energy?

In this process, energy is required for moving of substances across a plasma membrane.Because often substances moved from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration or of their big size.

Passive Transport:

“Movement of molecules and ions across the cell membrane without energy required.”



·       Movement of molecules –Osmosis

·       Movement of lipophilic molecules(oxygen,carbon dioxide etc.)-Simple diffusion

·       Movement of charged molecules by membrane proteins(sucrose,ions etc.)-Facilitated diffusion

Two main biological processes occurs due to active and passive transport because they play important role for providing nutrients, water,oxygen and other essential molecules to the cell along with the removal of waste products.Active and passive transport having different movement but do work for same purpose.

Energy is not required for transporting of the molecules in the biological process of passive transport.All particales which are soluble easily are transported through the passive transport.The process occurs for maintaining the balance and equilibrium  level of the cell. All waste products includeWater and Carbon dioxide separately moved out of the cell by using passive transport.

But the nutrients like Oxygen which is functional unit of the cell diffused in this process. Diffusion,Osmosis and Facilitated Diffusion are examples of passive transport.




“Movement of water across selectively permeable to a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.”


“Net movement of molecules from an area of their higher concentration into another area of lower concentration.”

Nutrients used in passive transport:

Vitamins B and Vitamins C passing through the protein channels using passive diffusion.

Facilitated diffusion:

In this type of diffusion molecules move through the membrane with the help of transport protein or carrier protein.

Fructose passes through the Facilitated diffusion by using carrier protein to get across the cell membrane.

Similarities between active and passive transport:

·       Both processes are used for help in the movement of compulsory substances in the cell and the erasure of waste products.

·       The presence of gradient’s concentration of the substances across the cell membrane is compulsory for these processes.

Key points on active and passive transport:

·       Passive transport does not require energy for the movement of molecules but active transport required energy for the movement of substances.

·       In the active transport,substances move against the gradient’s concentration whereas in passive transport,substances move along the gradient’s concentration.

·       In human’s intestine,uptake of glucose worked on the principle of the active transport.

Difference between active and passive transport :

Active transport

Passive transport

Cellular energy required.

Not required cellular energy.

Substances move from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration.

Substances move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

This process is required for the transportation of all the substances such as large cells, complex sugar, large cells etc.

This process is required for transportation of all soluble substances, including oxygen, carbon dioxide,water , sex             

hormones ,lipids etc.

By this process various molecules are transport in the cell.

Passive transport involved in the maintenance of equilibrium level inside the cell.

It is a dynamic process.

It is a physical process.

It is a highly selective.

It is a partly non-selective.

It is a rapid process.

It is a comparatively slow process.


Its process is influenced by temperature.

Its process is not influenced by temperature.

In this process, carrier proteins are required.

In this process, carrier proteins is not required.

Active transport reduces or stopped the as the oxygen content is reduced.

Passive transport is not affected by metabolic inhibitors.

Inhibitors which are involved in metabolic system can influence and stop active transport.

 It is not influenced by metabolic inhibitors.

Various types of active transport-Sodium potassium pump, endocytosis , exocytosis etc.

Types of passive transport are Diffusion, osmosis, Facilitated diffusion etc.



 Transportation of the nutrients through the cell:

 Nutrients are transport throughout our body through our blood by capillaries, small blood vessels that connected the arteries to the veins .Oxygen,nutrients and wastes all pass in and out of our blood through the capillary walls.

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